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The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region. Additionally, Safavid Iran’s complex relationship with Mughal India laid the foundation for some of the most important trade routes in all of Asia. [11] New Julfa soon became renowned for its silk production, drawing the attention of Shah Abbas himself. An integral part of generating profitable commerce in Safavid territories centered around creating a hospitable and tolerant environment in which to conduct business transactions. What kind of graphic organizer should you use on a article about video-game addictions? Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. However, the use of the word “unbalanced” is not meant to imply a sense of instability or weakness, but rather represent the unique way in which the Safavid economy was positioned within the larger global economic system as a whole. In relation to Safavid Iran’s “more fragile economic circumstance,” the Safavids managed to accumulate a “trade deficit with the Indian subcontinent, which stood in contrast to the country’s position vis-à-vis the Ottoman Empire and Russia.”[17] This is because the overarching economic strategy of Safavid Iran was to generate economic growth by leveraging its geographic position and emphasis on the transit, and not the production, of goods – with the exception of silk. Abbas 1 of Persia Abbas 1 of Persia came into power after his predecisor Mohammad had resigned. What will happen if money collected by the government is lower than spending? The Safavid Empire, based in Persia , ruled over much of southwestern Asia from 1501 to 1736. A prime example of this can be seen in the trade shifts which occurred as a result of the Persian-Portuguese hostilities. lacked system of hereditary succession, It is in this critical time period where the foundation for modern terms such as “globalization” and “interconnected global economy” was first laid. Oct 1, 1587. While some of these goods, services, and materials were absorbed into the Safavid economy, many continued to be exported elsewhere. These military tactics, however, had been out dated and made obsolete by the new tactics and strategies of the surrounding empires. Whereas, comparatively, one could argue that Kabul’s influence gravitates northward due to its proximity to the overland silk trade routes, such as the famed “Silk Road.” In order to obtain a more holistic understanding of precisely how caravans traveled throughout south, central, and west Asia, we will use the Qandahar-Isfahan trade route and the province of Balkh, in modern Afghanistan, as case studies. Their religious… Under the reign of Shah Abbas, Isfahan became the undisputed capital of Safavid Iran and one of the major economic centers throughout the entire Middle East—a point which can be validated based on Isfahan’s immense population statistics. Secondly, this paper will consult sources which focus on the economic relationship between the Mughal Empire, Europe, and the Safavid Empire during this time period. In India, in places as varied as Surat, Ahmedabad and Agta, interest rates fell from 72per centto 6-9 per cent per annum between the 1620s and the 1680s,21 The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Econonry 37 ln an annual minimum of 6 per cent was charged in Sural.zz In lran, in con- 1697, trast, commercial loans around 7640 carriedanannualinterest oft5 to 20 per cent, while Banyan … That, combined with a lavish lifestyle, military spending, and falling revenues resulted in a weak economy. As such, they were often frequented by traveling merchants and quickly became vital to profitable commercial activity for those merchants. He was a disciple of the famed Sufi grand master Sheikh Zahed Gilani (1216 - 1301) of Lahijan. [18] In addition to popular trade routes, the caravanserais could also be found along pilgrimage routes and soon became synonymous with the grand bazaars of major Iranian urban centers.[19]. Weaknesses of the Safavid Empire. Safavid power ended and civil wars followed, which depressed Iran's economy further and … The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. Both the Ottoman and Mughal empires benefitted from the agricultural revenue of their land, as well as control of trade. Strengths of the Safavid Empire. The Safavid Empire was held together in the early years by conquering new territory, and then by the need to defend it from the neighbouring Ottoman Empire. It also came to terms with the Tajik aristocracy, which included the established ulama. In the case of Julfa specifically, its destruction at the hands of Shah Abbas during the Safavid-Ottoman war of 1603-05, and the subsequent forced migration of the native Armenian population, led to the rise of New Julfa, a wealthy mercantile suburb in Isfahan. The Safavid Empire was a theocracy; The state religion was Shi'a Islam; All other religions, and forms of Islam were suppressed; The Empire's economic strength … The Safavid Empire lasted until 1736. [26] Many chose the maritime route, but those who decided on taking the overland route were often trying to maximize their profits by trading en route to their destination. Abstract. Safavid Empire Made by: Megan Powell, Vicky Rodriguez, Keely Hoppmeyer, and Brennen Powell Safavid vs Other Empires Social: The Safavids gave women more rights while the Ottomans tried to remain more traditional Mughals began to take away women's freedoms such a making them veil What travels faster in air sound or light and how do you know this? Rudi Mathee, “The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Economy,” in, Rudi Mathee, “Between Venice and Surat: The Trade in Gold in Late Safavid Iran,”, Linda K. Steinmann, “Shah ‘Abbas and the Royal Silk Trade 1599-1629,”, Muzzafar Alam, “Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, C. 1550-1750,”, S. M. Ikram, Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf, “Muslim Civilization in India – Part Two: The Mughal Period, Chapter 17,” in, Derek Bryce, Kevin D. O’Gorman, and Ian W.F. Scott C. Levi, “India xiii. “Muslim Civilization in India – Part Two: The Mughal Period, Chapter 17.” In, Khazeni, Arash. [22] Furthermore, one can argue that Qandahar’s significance gravitates southward due to its ties to maritime trade routes. For this reason, the role which Iran’s economy played during the Safavid era was essential to laying the foundation for the modern global economy as we know it. Caravanserais were similar to hotels, and were most commonly found along popular trade routes in the region. Read his obituary, share your memories and condolences, get key updates, and see any funeral details on Safavid Empire's personal online memorial on Ever Loved. Spiritual heir to Sheikh Zahed, Safi Al-Din transformed the inherited Zahediyeh Sufi Order in… Essentially, a select group of industrializing Western powers experienced an increase in demand and consumption, thereby triggering an increase in the production and transport of goods and resources from the East. For the Mughals, a majority of their trade relations with Persia began and ended in Lahore. In summation, without the mercantilist Safavid transit economy promoting the flow of goods and services from East to West and vice versa, the growth that the global economy experienced during the seventeenth century could have been severely stunted. “Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, C. 1550-1750.”, Bryce, Derek, Kevin D. O’Gorman, and Ian W.F. In the case of the exchange of western bullion for eastern silk, neither the bullion that was imported nor all of the silk that was exported originated in Iran itself. 1450 – 1750 Janet Pareja, Signature School, Evansville, IN 2. Some of these camel caravans used an alternative route by way of modern day Hormuz. Iran had also declined militarily, leaving it more vulnerable to invasion, which came out of the east. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands which sought Persian carpet, silk and textiles. Safavid era (1501–1729) begins a new age in the history of Iran. The purpose of this paper is to disprove this theory in three stages. Safavid Iran generated economic growth by capitalizing on transit trade, or the business associated with the passage of goods and services through a territory to their final destination. How much money do you start with in monopoly revolution? One way that Safavid Iran promoted business opportunities within its borders was by establishing an elaborate system of caravanserais. The map pictured is part of the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection at the University of Texas. “Modernity and Nation-making in India, Turkey and Iran.”, Gommans, Jos. More problematic for the Safavids was the powerful Ottoman Empire.The Ottomans, a Sunni dynasty, considered the active recruitment of Turkmen tribes of Anatolia for the Safavid cause as a major threat. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in Ind… The Shah’s that followed Shah Abbas were ineffectual towards the empire. The Safavid Empire was not a conquest state: Safavid conquest did not imply a change in the form of administration. Consequently, much like the trade of precious metals and silk, the trade of livestock from Safavid Iran using central Asian trade routes served to bolster Iran’s impact as a key player in the growing global economy. When discussing the Qandahar-Isfahan route, it is important to note that this route actually starts in Lahore and not Qandahar. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because 'Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. Finally, referencing the previously mentioned trade surplus Mughal India maintained over Safavid Iran, there were only three commodities which Iran could offer to offset the deficit. Though one could certainly make the argument that the empire reached its zenith during his time as shah. Decline of the Safavid Empire Many factors played into the decline and fall of the Safavid Empire. Stephen Dale states that Iran and Turan, which refers to the land of the Tur, or modern day Central Asia, “raised a surplus of horses that Mughal rulers, commanders, and cavalrymen valued as mounts.”[40] These horses traveled to India via the overland trade routes, such as the Qandahar-Isfahan route, passing through provinces like Balkh along the way. While more “traditional” economies Safavid Persian Empire is ranked 23,814 th in the world and 20 th in Greater Middle East for Largest Furniture Restoration Industry, scoring 4,956.38 on the Spitz-Pollish Productivity Index . Some of the silk originated in the Orient, and the bullion originated in the West. Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. ECONOMY. Brewminate uses Infolinks and is an Amazon Associate with links to items available there. For example, maritime trade routes from Bandar Abbas to Surat saw the transport of enormous amounts of precious metals between the Safavid and Mughal empires. Sheikh Safi, or Safi-Al-Din Abul Fath Is'haq Ardabili, came from Ardebil, a city in Iranian Azerbaijan where his shrine still exists. Safavid Empire Economy. Bryce, O’Gorman, and Baxter, “Commerce, Empire,” 205. With the beginning of the Safavid dynasty in Iran, Albuquerque, a Portuguese general, conquered Hormoz Island in southern Iran. “Merchants in Safavid Iran: Participants and Perceptions.”, ———. During the expansion of the empire, the Safavid regime closely resembled the Aqquyunlu and Timurid regimes that it supplanted. How do you what a fish looks like if come a cross one? Elphinstone observed that pastoral nomadic tribes played a central role in this trade as “intermediaries carrying goods and as suppliers of livestock.”[34] The specific livestock being referenced here is the “strong and active breed of horse” that Balkh’s Central Eurasian horse trade became famous for. [31] Still, based on the firsthand accounts of the size of the camel caravans which frequented the Qandahar-Isfahan route, the sheer amount of capital being transported within those caravans, and the perpetual conflict for control of Qandahar, the overland trade routes were undoubtedly a vital part of Safavid-Mughal relations, and more importantly, Safavid Iran’s transit economy. Its founder was Sheikh Safi Al-Din (1252-1334), after whom it is named. “The City of Balkh and the Central Eurasian Caravan Trade in the Early Nineteenth Century.”, Lambourn, Elizabeth. While more “traditional” economies possessed a closer balance between the amount of goods exported and imported (and thereby absorbed), Safavid Iran’s economy was comparatively unbalanced in these core aspects. Over time, thanks to the military might of the foreign trading companies, the overland route gradually became safer. The silk industry of early modern Iran was one of the cornerstones of the Safavid economy. Copyright © 2021 Multiply Media, LLC. This map provides an excellent data visualization, as it illustrates the centrality of Persia between the Orient and the major economic players to the West. According to many historians, the Safavid empire marked the beginning of modern Persia. [8], A majority of Iran’s silk production occurred in the areas near the Caspian Sea. The Safavid Empire was predeceased by The Mongol Empire. There are several contributing factors which resulted in Safavid Iran’s comparatively irregular economic construction. “The Horse Trade in Eighteenth-Century South Asia.”, Ikram, S. M., Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because In regards to Russian transactions, Mathee claims “a contemporary source indicates that the Russians had to pay half to one-third of the price of the goods they received from Iran in the form of silver and gold coins.”[13] We can infer from this information that Safavid Iran maintained a trade surplus with the major players to the North and West. What fueled the growth of Safavid economy was Iran's position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east and north. In three stages northern Iran to India revived in the 16th century area encompassing and surrounding modern day.... 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